От де Голля до Путина

ПАРИЖ – Пятьдесят лет назад генерал Шарль де Голль пришел к власти во Франции, по сути, в результате легального государственного переворота. Конечно, генерала призвал и выбрал стоящий на грани краха французский парламент. Однако давление со стороны французской армии и в восстание в Алжире не оставили парламенту большого выбора. Увядающие политические лидеры французской республики надеялись, что де Голль сможет остановить войну в Алжире и сохранить ее как часть Франции. Программа де Голля была совсем иной: он хотел изменить конституцию и основать новую «Пятую Республику».

Для де Голля война в Алжире была еще одним признаком дисфункциональности государства, вывод из собственного опыта 1940 года, когда французское правительство не смогло противостоять вторжению гитлеровской Германии. Только сильный лидер, по мнению де Голля, мог избежать поражения.

В своих мемуарах де Голль писал о том, что он предпочитает восстановить монархию после освобождения. Однако общественное мнение к этому не было готово, также наследники французской короны не были готовы к выполнению такой задачи. Альтернативой могла стать выборная монархия: конституция Пятой Республики, ратифицированная 50 лет назад примерно в эти дни, основывалась на этом центральном принципе.

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