Od de Gaulla k Putinovi

PAŘÍŽ – Během událostí, jež byly v podstatě legálním státním převratem, generál Charles de Gaulle před padesáti lety uchvátil moc ve Francii. Pravda, generála oslovil a zvolil vrávoravý francouzský parlament. Nátlak francouzské armády a vzpoura v Alžírsku však nedávaly parlamentu mnoho na vybranou. Postonávající političtí vůdci francouzské republiky doufali, že de Gaulle dokáže ukončit alžírskou válku, a přesto zachovat Alžírsko francouzské. De Gaullův plán byl ale naprosto odlišný: chtěl přepsat ústavu a najít pro Francii novou „pátou republiku“.

Válka v Alžírsku byla pro de Gaulla jen dalším symptomem dysfunkčního státu, což byla analýza opřená o jeho vlastní zkušenosti z roku 1940, kdy francouzská vláda projevila neschopnost ubránit se vpádu Hitlerova Německa. Vyvarovat se porážky, domníval se de Gaulle, dokáže jedině silný lídr.

Ve svých pamětech de Gaulle uvádí, že po osvobození inklinoval k obnově monarchie. Na to ale nebylo připravené veřejné mínění a dědici francouzské koruny na úkol nestačili. Alternativou byl volený monarcha: ústava páté republiky, ratifikovaná právě tento týden před 50 lety, byla vystavěna právě kolem tohoto ústředního principu.

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