从戴高乐到普京

巴黎——50年前,查尔斯·戴高乐将军实际上通过一次合法政变夺取了法国的政权。没错,戴高乐将军是得到了苦苦挣扎的法国议会的邀请,并通过议会选举合法当选。可来自法国军队的压力和阿尔及利亚的叛乱,并没有给议会留下多少选择的余地。被众多问题困扰的法兰西共和国政治领袖希望戴高乐能在结束阿尔及利亚战争的同时,保住阿尔及利亚的法属地位。而戴高乐的安排却截然不同:他要的是重新制定宪法,建立新的法国“第五共和国”。

阿尔及利亚战争对戴高乐来讲,不过是国家运转不畅的另外一个症状,这样的分析源自他在20世纪40年代的亲身经历,事实证明当时的法国政府无力抵抗希特勒德国的入侵。因此戴高乐认为,只有一个强有力的领袖才能避免失败的厄运。

戴高乐在回忆录中表明了在解放后恢复君主制的愿望。可是公众舆论并没有做好这样的准备,而且法国的王室继承人也承担不起这样的责任。因此就举行了元首选举:50年前的这个星期通过的《第五共和国宪法》就是本着这样一个核心原则。

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