greece flag Kostas Pikoulas/ZumaPress

¿Por qué falló la economía griega?

NUEVA YORK – Demasiados políticos y economistas echan la culpa por el colapso de la economía griega a las medidas de austeridad exigidas por los acreedores. Pero los datos no muestran que la austeridad haya sido tanta a la luz de la historia, ni que los recortes del gasto público fueran tan profundos como para explicar la enorme pérdida de empleos. Lo que sí muestran es una serie de problemas económicos derivados del sistema de valores y creencias de la sociedad griega.

El sector público griego, mucho más que en otros países de Europa, está plagado de clientelismo (búsqueda de votos) y amiguismo (búsqueda de favores). La relación entre las pensiones máximas de los empleados públicos y los salarios es casi el doble que en España; el gobierno favorece a las élites empresariales con exenciones de impuestos; y hay empleados estatales que cobran sus salarios pero no se presentan a trabajar.

El sector privado también tiene serios problemas, especialmente la influencia omnipresente de los intereses creados y las élites empresariales y políticas del país. Según los últimos datos disponibles, las ganancias de las empresas como porcentaje de sus ingresos están en un altísimo 46%; el segundo país es Italia, con 42%, y el tercero Francia, con 41% (en Alemania la proporción es 39%; en Estados Unidos, 35%; y en el Reino Unido, 32%). Para los que ya están en el círculo hay subsidios y contratos; para los que no, es difícil entrar. Se dice que los jóvenes emprendedores griegos prefieren no constituir empresas en Grecia, por temor a que otros se las quiten con documentos falsos. Según el Banco Mundial, Grecia es uno de los lugares de Europa donde es más difícil abrir una empresa. Como resultado, la competencia por la cuota de mercado es débil, y escasean empresas con ideas nuevas.

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