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Theorie und Praxis der Globalisierung

NEW HAVEN – Obwohl scheinbar elegant in der Theorie, hapert es bei der Globalisierung in der Praxis. Das ist die Lehre aus dem Brexit und dem Aufstieg Donald Trumps in den Vereinigten Staaten. Und sie untermauert auch die zunehmend heftige Reaktion gegen China, die gegenwärtig auf der Welt spürbar ist. Wer dem Freihandel an dessem Altar huldigt – mich eingeschlossen – muss mit dieser eklatanten Diskrepanz zurande kommen.

Um der Wahrheit die Ehre zu geben: es gibt keine exakte Theorie der Globalisierung. Bestenfalls können Ökonomen mit David Ricardos Rahmenwerk aus dem frühen 19. Jahrhundert aufwarten: produziert ein Land einfach in Übereinstimmung mit seinem komparativen Vorteil (hinsichtlich Ressourcenausstattung und Qualifikation der Arbeitskräfte), profitiert es umgehend aufgrund des zunehmenden grenzüberschreitenden Handels. Die Handelsliberalisierung – Lebenselixier der Globalisierung – verspricht Vorteile für alle.  

Auf lange Sicht hält dieses Versprechen durchaus, doch auf kurze Sicht kommt es unweigerlich zu einem viel härterer Realitätstest. Der Brexit – also der Austritt Großbritanniens aus der Europäischen Union – ist lediglich das jüngste Beispiel dafür.

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