Financer la lutte contre le changement climatique

COPENHAGUE – Il est aujourd’hui généralement admis que les économies avancées  devront fournir une contribution financière considérable aux pays en développement pour leur permettre de lutter contre le changement climatique. Des fonds devront être investis dans des sources d’énergie à faible intensité de carbone, dans la reforestation et la protection des forêts tropicales, dans des modifications de l’aménagement des sols et dans les mesures d’adaptation et d’atténuation. Mais il n’existe pas de consensus équivalent sur la provenance de ces fonds.

Les pays avancés rechignent à fournir de nouvelles aides financières. Ils viennent d’éprouver un net accroissement de leur dette nationale et doivent encore encourager une reprise de leur économie, autant de facteurs qui influent sur leur attitude. Il semble qu’ils seront en mesure de bricoler un fond d’urgence de 10 milliards de dollars par an sur les cinq prochaines années. Mais même si leurs budgets nationaux ne semblent pas capables d’assumer un montant supérieur, il est peu probable que cette somme satisfasse les pays en développement.

Je pense que ce montant pourrait être multiplié au moins par deux et pour une durée plus longue. Les gouvernements des économies avancées sont victimes d’un malentendu qui présuppose que le financement doit provenir de leurs budgets nationaux. Mais ce n’est pas le cas. Ils ont déjà tout l’argent nécessaire : il repose dans leurs avoirs de réserves auprès du Fonds monétaire international. Le dépenser ne contribuerait en rien aux déficits fiscaux de ces pays. Il suffit de puiser dans ces réserves.

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