Nachhaltigkeit für die Eurozone

ATHEN – In den Anfängen der Eurozone hatten ihre Gründer die Vision eines schrittweisen Fortschritts hin zu einer „optimalen Währungsunion“, die durch Haushaltsintegration, Freizügigkeit der Arbeitskräfte und politische Einheit geprägt ist. Aber dieser Prozess hat nicht stattgefunden, und wie die scheinbar endlose Griechenlandkrise zeigt, ist die Eurozone immer noch durch strukturelle Schwächen und extreme Anfälligkeit gegenüber externen Schocks geprägt. Dies ist eindeutig nicht nachhaltig.

Trotz aller Bemühungen zur Förderung haushaltspolitischer Koordinierung stehen die Budgets der Eurozonen-Mitglieder immer noch unter der Zuständigkeit unterschiedlicher nationaler Behörden, und die Nordeuropäer sperren sich immer noch gegen Ausgleichszahlungen von reicheren hin zu ärmeren Ländern über den sehr begrenzten Rahmen der EU-Regionalfonds hinaus. Außerdem wird die Mobilität der Arbeitskräfte immer noch durch sprachliche und kulturelle Barrieren sowie durch bürokratische Hemmnisse eingeschränkt. Und eine „immer engere“ politische Union findet in der Öffentlichkeit keine Unterstützung mehr – wenn dies überhaupt jemals der Fall war – und ist daher heute nicht mehr machbar.

Immer mehr Kommentatoren stellen die Lebensfähigkeit der Währungsunion in Frage – und dies nicht mehr nur in der angelsächsischen Welt. Einige von ihnen fordern Griechenland auf, die Eurozone zu verlassen, weil sie glauben, eine begrenztere und homogenere Währungsunion sei stärker und leichter zu vereinen. Andere halten einen Austritt Griechenlands nur für den Beginn der unvermeidlichen Auflösung eines Systems, das den Zweck, für den es geschaffen wurde, nicht erfüllt.

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