Greek flag and EU flag Greek Parliament Michael Debets/ZumaPress

El gobierno que la eurozona se merece

ATENAS  – Cabe preguntarse si los problemas de Grecia destruirán la unión monetaria europea o revelarán la forma en que puede salvarse. El último y polémico acuerdo de rescate (que algunos compararon con el Tratado de Versalles de 1919, en el que Grecia ocuparía el lugar de la Alemania de entonces) es el último giro de la saga existencial de la eurozona. Ha causado una división en Syriza, el gobernante partido de izquierdas, un distanciamiento entre la Canciller alemana Ángela Merkel y su inflexible ministro de finanzas Wolfgang Schäuble, y hecho que Francia busque reafirmarse en el eje francogermano que siempre ha sido el “motor” de la integración europea.

Mientras tanto, muchos de los economistas keynesianos de Estados Unidos, entre ellos los premios Nobel Paul Krugman y Joseph Stiglitz, simpatizan con la postura antiausteridad de Grecia. Otros economistas, principalmente en Europa, arguyen que Alemania debe adoptar un papel político que corresponda a su preeminencia económica y que debe aceptar formas de compartir la soberanía (y las deudas) a fin de asegurar la cohesión y la sostenibilidad monetaria de la unión. Humillar a un país pequeño y convertirlo en un virtual protectorado no va en beneficio de los intereses de largo plazo de Europa.

Sin embargo, eso es lo que está en juego. Grecia firmó el acuerdo después que Schäuble propusiera explícitamente que abandonara la eurozona (de manera supuestamente temporal) y adoptara una nueva moneda. La postura de Alemania fue el primer cuestionamiento abierto de una potencia europea importante a la noción de que la unión monetaria es irrevocable. Como los franceses, que simpatizan instintivamente con el argumento antiausteridad y están conscientes de su papel cada vez menor en la pareja francogermana, notaran con rapidez, la postura alemana también marcó un potencial paso desde una “Alemania europea” a una “Europa alemana”.

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