欧洲应该抛弃反倾销

斯德哥尔摩——保护欧洲的经济不受不公平的国际贸易行为的损害长久以来已经成为欧盟外部政策的一个重要组成部分。在一些政治家和商业领袖中,如果竞争被认为是不公平的,那么欧盟委员会就应该召集使用新的保护贸易的措施,这几乎成为他们的一种本能反应。但是,欧洲人防卫的是什么,并且究竟什么是“不公平的”贸易行为呢?

在缺乏防止掠夺性价格和其他反竞争行为的国际竞争规则的情况下,保护贸易的措施是次优的选择。迄今为止,使用最广泛的工具是反倾销税,其目的是向以反竞争方式行为的公司施加一些限制措施。但是,关税提高了,商品价格就会上涨,这通常意味着社会总体福利的一个损失。这个事实长久以来被寻求保护贸易的措施的公司所忽略。但是,新情况是,这些公司 本身 可能不能从保护贸易的措施中获得好处。

正是“防卫”这个词给一个国家创造了这样一个形象:这个国家和世界上其他国家的商业联系仅仅是通过传统贸易进行的。对于这样一个国家,所有的进口货物都真正的是外国货物,因而它的保护贸易的措施仅仅针对的是外国的利益。

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