Los viejos fantasmas de la nueva Europa

NUEVA YORK – El pasado acechó a Europa en 2014. El año comenzó con mucha energía conmemorativa por el centenario del estallido de la Gran Guerra. Pero conforme avanzó, comenzaron a aparecer paralelos inquietantes, no con 1914, sino con algunas de las peores características de los años de entreguerras.

De Escocia y Cataluña a las fronteras de Ucrania hubo un rebrote nacionalista, mientras la economía europea se estancaba por la fobia alemana a la inflación, que se remite a 1923. Y con el correr del año, se hizo evidente un nuevo tira y afloja geopolítico entre los dos gigantes del continente a principios del siglo XX, Alemania y Rusia, mientras la amnésica élite política europea parecía cometer un error tras otro.

Para cualquiera que recuerde Danzig y el Sudetenland (los interminables reclamos y contrarreclamos de nacionalidad que llevaron al estallido de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en las fronteras del este de Europa) el revanchismo del presidente ruso Vladímir Putin en la región de Donbas al este de Ucrania en 2014 resulta inquietantemente familiar. Su retórica de que Rusia ha sido humillada y está rodeada, la declamación instrumental de los derechos de las minorías y el uso de agentes locales para disfrazar las acciones del Kremlin (con todas las incertidumbres que eso conlleva) a nada se parecen tanto como a las políticas irredentistas de Alemania en entreguerras.

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