Evropa po krůčcích

ŘÍM – Před rokem by málokdo sázel na to, že Evropská unie, stále ještě vyvedená z míry traumatem ze zamítnutí Ústavní smlouvy v roce 2005, je na cestě k ratifikaci nové Reformní smlouvy, přijaté loni v prosinci v Lisabonu. Skutečnost, že ji Velká Británie může ratifikovat dřív než tradičně „proevropské“ státy jako Itálie, podle některých jen podtrhuje to, že smlouva postrádá nové a smělé iniciativy usilující o urychlení evropského sjednocování. To jsou ale na omylu.

Ovšemže, hnací silou evropské integrace je už od jejích prvních let netrpělivá nespokojenost. Jak ale ve své deklaraci v roce 1950 napsal Robert Schuman, Evropu nelze vybudovat najednou. Obdobně Altiero Spinelli, další z otců zakladatelů EU, na sklonku života napsal, že bez vizionářských Evropanů by sice žádná Evropa nevznikla, ale že vizionáři by se bez pragmatických státníků nikam nedostali.

Nedostatky Reformní smlouvy jsou zjevné. Ústup od pojmenování „ústava“ byl zřejmě pro účast všech členských států nezbytný. Stejně nezbytná ale není setrvalá nejistota ohledně společné politické platformy, o niž se hlas Evropy bude muset opírat v zahraniční politice. Prostor svobody, bezpečnosti a práva navíc u zásadních rozhodnutí v oblasti boje proti zločinu a terorismu stále vyžaduje jednomyslnost, z čehož plyne mučivá zdlouhavost. Smlouva rovněž nedělá dost pro posílení koordinace evropských ekonomických a rozpočtových politik.

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