Wege aus der Armutsfalle

Die Beseitigung der Armut muss an erster Stelle der politischen Agenda Lateinamerikas und der Karibik bleiben, denn dort ist die Ungleichheit krasser als in jeder anderen Region und 20 % der Menschen überleben mit wenig mehr als zwei Dollar pro Tag (gemessen an der Kaufkraftparität 1993).

Armut ist von ihrem Wesen her ein dynamisches Phänomen. Arme Menschen sitzen in einer Falle aus spärlichen Besitztümern (oder Fähigkeiten) fest. Daher müssen Maßnahmen zur Armutsverringerung darauf abzielen, Anreize für arme Menschen zu schaffen, Vermögenswerte und Fähigkeiten zu erlangen, die ihnen den Ausbruch aus der Armut ermöglichen.

Selbstverständlich ist es unmöglich, ernsthaft etwas gegen die Armut zu unternehmen, ohne für nachhaltiges Wirtschaftswachstum zu sorgen. Aber angesichts der Wirtschaftsleistung des Kontinents in den letzten 15 Jahren ist festzustellen, dass Wachstum allein die Armut in den nächsten zehn Jahren wahrscheinlich auch nicht um mehr als 25 % verringern wird. Selbst wenn es den politischen Entscheidungsträgern gelingen würde, ein investitionsfreundliches Umfeld zu schaffen und dadurch das Wachstum anzukurbeln, wären die Probleme Lateinamerikas nicht gelöst. Die enormen Einkommensunterschiede bedürfen spezieller Maßnahmen zur Armutsbekämpfung.

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