Hand rail with Refugees Welcome sticker on it

Gli economisti e la crisi dei rifugiati

NEW HAVEN – L’attuale crisi globale dei rifugiati ricorda il periodo immediatamente successivo alla seconda guerra mondiale. Secondo una stima contemporanea, ci sono stati più di 40 milioni di rifugiati solo in Europa. Questi "profughi", come venivano chiamati in quel momento, sono stati costretti a fuggire dalle loro case a causa della violenza, di trasferimenti forzati, di persecuzione e distruzione di proprietà e delle infrastrutture.

La terribile situazione postbellica ha portato alla creazione nel 1950 dell'Alto Commissariato delle Nazioni Unite per i Rifugiati, che avrebbe dovuto avere solo un mandato temporaneo, proteggendo le persone sfollate per tre anni. Ma il problema non è mai stato risolto. Al contrario, non solo l'UNHCR è ancora attivo; sta lanciando un allarme.

Nella sua relazione di metà anno del 2015, l'agenzia ha reso noto che il numero di persone "forzatamente sfollate" in tutto il mondo era pari a 59,5 milioni alla fine del 2014, compresi 19,5 milioni di sfollati a livello internazionale, che essi definiscono come veri rifugiati. Alcuni paesi - Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Colombia, Repubblica Centrafricana, Repubblica Democratica del Congo, Iraq, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan del sud, Sudan, Siria, e Ucraina - hanno rappresentato più di un mezzo milione di sfollati alla fine del 2014. Il rapporto ha osservato che il numero totale era certamente cresciuto notevolmente da allora.

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