Hand rail with Refugees Welcome sticker on it

难民路上的经济学家

纽黑文—今天的全球难民危机让人想起了第二次世界大战刚刚结束的时候。据一项当代估算,光是在欧洲就有4,000万多难民。这些当时被称为“流民”的人因为暴力、强迫搬迁、迫害和房产和基础设施被毁而被迫逃离家园。

战后的凄惨景象让联合国在1950年成立了难民署(High Commissioner for Refugees),该机构原本只是临时性的设置,目标是在三年的时间里保护流民。但这一问题从未消失。相反,联合国难民署不但仍然存在,还在敲响警钟。

在2015年年中报告中,联合国难民署认为2014年底全世界共有5,950万“被迫流离失所”者,其中包括1,950万国际流民(他们被定义为的真正的难民)。一些国家——阿富汗、阿塞拜疆、哥伦比亚、中非共和国、民主刚果、伊拉克、缅甸、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、索马里、南苏丹、苏丹、叙利亚和乌克兰——各自都存在五十万以上被迫流离失所者。报告指出,此后这一数字必定又有了极大的增长。

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