机能失调的裁军

发自日内瓦——在联合国裁军会议于日内瓦展开一段为期7个星期议程的同时,整个会议却面临着前途未卜的苦况。当世界各国和公民社会组织都在积极运作之时,会议的进程则陷入了停滞之中。而会议的公信力——事实上就是其最核心的合法性——正岌岌可危。

这个被简称为“CD”的会议长期以来都是全球唯一一个进行裁军谈判的多边论坛。而包括《禁止生物武器公约》、《禁止化学武器公约》,《不扩散核武器条约》以及《全面禁止核试验条约》在内的一系列条约则彰显出会议所取得的诸多杰出成就。事实上其中大部分成就都是在冷战时期取得的,而这同时也证明了一点:即便是在全球政治形势极端对立的情况下也是可以达成某些法律规范的。

但时至今日,裁军会议已经变得千疮百孔。会议的运作基于共识原则,但其成员国却有着各自不同的利益考虑。有些国家希望在裁军方面进行谈判;另一些则希望禁止将核物质应用在武器方面;还有一些国家认为这一条约应涵盖现有的核武库存。有些国家希望订立一个安全保证条约,确保无核国家不会受到核武器威胁;而另一些国家则试图订立条约防止在外太空出现军备竞赛。

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