US President Donald Trump shakes hands as he announces his nominee for Chairman of the Federal Reserve SAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images

特朗普的正常美联储

坎布里奇—特朗普的总统生涯几乎完全置常规制度规范于不顾,如何解释他绝对合理的美联储理事会任命?最新提名人、哥伦比亚大学教授理查德·克拉里达(Richard Clarida)和堪萨斯州银行委员米歇尔·鲍曼(Michelle Bowman)延续了选择理性技术官僚的模式,而这个模式选出的第一任便是现任美联储主席杰罗姆·鲍威尔(Jerome Powell)。

如果特朗普是一位正常的总统,那么任命能够确保有效决策、拥有高度评价的个人实乃应有之义。但特朗普常常选择几乎毫无政府经验的官员,给他们的任务也往往是给所在部门制造尽可能大的破坏。但对于美联储,这位《交易的艺术》(The Art of the Deal)作者提名的副主席是一位学者(克拉里达),他最著名的论文题为《货币政策的科学》(The Science of Monetary Policy)。

完全正常,你也许会这样说,因为保持美联储稳定而给予特朗普好评就像是因为不开启核战争而给他高分。央行独立性的概念在过去30年中在全世界政客心中已经根深蒂固。它不但是美国、欧元区和日本等民主实体的规范,俄罗斯总统普京和匈牙利总理欧尔班也不得不耗费巨大的时间和力量来挑战各自的央行。

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