Um desenvolvimento melhor

CAMBRIDGE - A nomeação de Jim Yong Kim como presidente do Banco Mundial pode ter sido previsível, dada a longa tradição que torna a selecção uma prerrogativa norte-americana. Mas até mesmo a aparência de competição entre Kim e os outros candidatos, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala e José Antonio Ocampo serviu para expor uma fissura profunda no campo da política de desenvolvimento, uma vez que Kim e os seus dois rivais representam abordagens radicalmente diferentes.

A visão que Kim sustém é bottom-up. Centra-se directamente nos pobres e na prestação de serviços - por exemplo, educação, saúde e microcrédito - às suas comunidades. O lemadesta perspectiva poderia ser: “O desenvolvimento é realizado com um projecto de cada vez”.

A outra abordagem, representada por Okonjo-Iweala e Ocampo, tem uma aproximação a nível de toda a economia. Enfatiza amplas reformas que afectam o quadro global económico e, deste modo, focaliza-se em áreas como o comércio internacional, as finanças, a macroeconomia e a governação.

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