Egypte : il faut rétablir la démocratie !

LONDRES – On dit que la crise que traverse l'Egypte est la pire de son histoire, pourtant elle n'est pas sans rappeler des événements qui ont eu lieu voilà 60 ans. Le 28 février 1954, près d'un million de manifestants ont assiégé le Palais Abdin au Caire qui était alors utilisé par Nasser et d'autres leaders du coup d'Etat de juillet 1952. Ils réclamaient la restauration des fragiles institutions démocratiques du pays, la libération des prisonniers politiques et le retour de l'armée dans ses casernes.

La crise de 1954 qui a duré deux mois a été déclenchée par la destitution du président égyptien, le général Naguib, par Nasser et sa faction. Comme aujourd'hui, les Frères musulmans se sont mobilisés en faveur du président renversé. Mais quand Nasser a promis d'organiser des élections en juin 1954 et de donner le pouvoir aux civils, l'un des dirigeants des Frères musulmans, Abd al-Qadr Audeh, a ordonné l'arrêt des manifestations.

La promesse de Nasser était creuse. En novembre sa faction était victorieuse. Naguib restait assigné à résidence, des travailleurs grévistes de gauche furent exécutés et les libéraux terrorisés. Audeh a été arrêté et exécuté en janvier 1955, ainsi que cinq autres membres des Frères musulmans. C'est ainsi que l'Egypte a perdu ses libertés fondamentales et ses institutions démocratiques pendant 56 ans, jusqu'au renversement de Moubarak, le 11 février 2011.

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