Democracy Painted on a Rusted Boat Filippo Minelli/Flickr

Repensar a Democracia

PRINCETON – Segundo vários parâmetros, o mundo nunca foi tão democrático. Praticamente todos os governos proclamam pelo menos defender a democracia e os direitos humanos. Embora as eleições possam não ser livres e justas, a manipulação eleitoral generalizada é rara, e há muito que terminaram os dias em que apenas os homens, os brancos ou os ricos podiam votar. Os inquéritos globais da Freedom House mostram um aumento constante, desde a década de 1970, da proporção dos países que são “livres” – uma tendência que o falecido especialista em ciências políticas Samuel Huntington apelidou de “terceira vaga” da democratização.

A disseminação de normas democráticas a partir dos países avançados do Ocidente para o resto do mundo terá sido talvez o benefício mais significativo da globalização. Contudo, nem tudo está bem com a democracia. Os governos democráticos de hoje apresentam um desempenho fraco, e o seu futuro permanece muito questionável.

Nos países avançados, o descontentamento com o governo deriva da sua incapacidade de apresentar políticas económicas eficazes para o crescimento e inclusão. Nas mais recentes democracias do mundo em desenvolvimento, a falta de salvaguarda das liberdades civis e da liberdade política constitui uma fonte adicional de descontentamento.

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