Luis Robayo/AFP/Getty Images

طريق كولومبيا الطويل إلى السلام

نيويورك – تم التوصل خلال هذا الشهر إلى اتفاق سلام بين القوات المسلحة الثورية الكولومبية (فارك) والحكومة ، و خلف ذلك ردودا إيجابية جدا. إنه إنجاز تاريخي فعلا، يَعد بإنهاء صراع دام أكثر من نصف قرن تميز بالخطف والتهجير القسري والهجمات العشوائية على القرى، وأعمال العنف التي أسفرت عن عشرات الآلاف من القتلى.

و تُعد كولومبيا من البلدان التي تستطيع وضع حد للمواجهات العنيفة. بعد صراع في منتصف القرن العشرين استمر عشر سنوات بين الأحزاب السياسية الرئيسية في البلاد - المعروفة اختصارا باسم "لافيولانسيا" أي العنف - تم ضع حدا للنزاع بين الحزبين الجمهوري والديمقراطي، على خلفية استفتاء عام 1957.

في عام 1990، توصلت الحكومة الكولومبية إلى تسويات سياسية مع عدة جماعات متمردة. على سبيل المثال، أصبحت "م-19" قوة رئيسية في الجمعية الدستورية عام 1991، وأصبح بعض قادتها شركاء فاعلين في الحياة السياسية الديمقراطية.

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