De nuevo se traban las reformas en China

A medida que se acercaba el 82 aniversario de la fundación del Partido Comunista Chino en el mes de julio, parecía que el nuevo secretario general, Hu Jintao, estaba a punto de anunciar una nueva serie de reformas. Durante una ceremonia para celebrar la promulgación de la constitución de 1982, se dice que Hu expresó interés en fortalecer la protección constitucional en contra de las invasiones oficiales de la vida privada de la gente y en promover una amplia reforma legal. En efecto, incluso se rumoró que estaba considerando una mayor democratización interna del Partido, más libertad de prensa, el fortalecimiento de los partidos políticos no comunistas y permitir el regreso de los disidentes exilados.

Esas ideas optimistas se vieron reforzadas cuando intelectuales chinos (incluso algunos académicos oficiales) empezaron a escribir y a hablar en favor de revisar veredictos polémicos del Partido en incidentes históricos (como la masacre de la Plaza de Tiananmen). Asimismo, hubo un aumento del apoyo popular a los trabajadores rurales (que han estado migrando por decenas de millones hacia las ciudades del país), así como de los llamados para realizar cambios constitucionales significativos.

Por ejemplo, Cao Siyuan, académico en asuntos legales, comenzó a escribir, a presionar y a organizar conferencias sobre las reformas constitucionales. El que Cao haya sido arrestado después de la masacre de Beijing de 1989, expulsado del Partido, que pasara tiempo dando conferencias en el extranjero y que ahora dirija una empresa de consultoría, no pareció ser un impedimento. Cao tuvo cuidado de mantenerse dentro de los límites del reformismo moderado. Sin embargo, hizo llamados abiertos para hacer reformas en cinco áreas: la constitución, la separación de poderes, las elecciones, los partidos políticos y la cultura de la política.

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