Paul Lachine

Les Etats-Unis et la Chine, amis des beaux jours

MÜNICH – Parce que la Chine a ancré sa monnaie sous-évaluée, le renminbi, au dollar, chaque dépréciation du dollar liée à la crise financière américaine a signifié un affaiblissement de la monnaie chinoise par rapport aux autres devises. Mais la Chine est-elle vraiment responsable de l’émergence d’une guerre mondiale des devises ?

Les banques centrales de la Corée du Sud, du Brésil, de Taiwan, du Japon, de Suisse et d’autres achètent aujourd’hui des dollars pour éviter que leurs monnaies s’apprécient et pour défendre ainsi leurs exportations. L’Europe aussi commence à s’inquiéter maintenant que le taux de change de l’euro a dépassé $1,40, bien au-delà de la parité de pouvoir d’achat, à $1,17.

Les Etats-Unis envisagent aujourd’hui des mesures de rétorsion contre la Chine et se préparent à une guerre commerciale. Le Congrès américain a autorisé le président à imposer de taxes douanières compensatoires sur les importations chinoises si la Chine persiste dans son refus d’apprécier sérieusement le renminbi face au dollar.

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