Equità e Libero Scambio

CAMBRIDGE – Alla fine dell’anno, il sistema del commercio globale dovrà affrontare un importante punto di svolta, un passaggio rinviato al momento dell’adesione della Cina all’Organizzazione Mondiale del Commercio quasi 15 anni fa. Gli Stati Uniti e l’Unione Europea devono decidere se iniziare a trattare la Cina come un’ “economia di mercato” nelle loro politiche commerciali. Purtroppo, anche se nel corso di quest’anno lo scontro si inasprirà, i termini della questione assicurano che non si farà nulla per affrontare le carenze più gravi del regime commerciale internazionale.

L’accordo di adesione della Cina all’OMC, firmato nel dicembre 2001, ha permesso ai partner commerciali del paese di trattare la Cina come un’ “economia non di mercato” (NME) per un periodo massimo di 15 anni. Lo status di NME ha reso molto più facile per i paesi importatori l’imposizione di tariffe speciali sulle esportazioni cinesi, sotto forma di dazi antidumping. In particolare, essi potevano usare i costi di produzione dei paesi più costosi come proxy per i veri costi cinesi, aumentando sia la probabilità di un accertamento di dumping che il margine stimato del dumping.

Oggi, anche se molti paesi, come Argentina, Brasile, Cile, e Corea del Sud, hanno già riconosciuto alla Cina lo status di economia di mercato, le due maggiori economie mondiali, Stati Uniti ed Unione Europea, non hanno ancora compiuto questo passo. Ma, a prescindere dal fatto che questi paesi lo facciano o meno, le misure antidumping sono inadeguate al compito di affrontare le preoccupazioni relative al commercio sleale – non perché tali preoccupazioni sono infondate, ma perché vanno ben al di là del dumping. L’antidumping facilita il protezionismo della peggior specie, mentre non fa nulla per i paesi che hanno bisogno di spazio politico legittimo.

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