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¿Puede China salvar el orden global?

ANNAPOLIS – En enero pasado, en la reunión anual del Foro Económico Mundial en Davos, el presidente chino Xi Jinping, refiriéndose a la experiencia reciente de China, habló en defensa de la globalización y ofreció una visión de desarrollo inclusivo y sostenible. Con la administración del presidente estadounidense, Donald Trump, dando la espalda al internacionalismo, China ha dado un paso hacia adelante para asumir el liderazgo mundial. ¿Pero puede China realmente proporcionar las soluciones alternativas necesarias para mantener en funcionamiento los motores de la globalización?

El orden liberal de la posguerra ha estado en serios problemas desde la crisis financiera de 2008, que debilitó las economías occidentales y socavó a los organismos de gobernanza mundial y las instituciones reguladoras. Según la directora gerente del Fondo Monetario Internacional, Christine Lagarde, las economías emergentes representaron más del 80% del crecimiento mundial después de la crisis, mientras que hoy aportan el 60% del PIB mundial.

Mientras tanto, las potencias emergentes, en particular China y Rusia, han socavado aún más las instituciones y valores liberales claves. La anexión de Crimea por parte de Rusia en 2014 y la intervención en Siria han desafiado los principios del intervencionismo humanitario, como la "responsabilidad de proteger" (R2P) y una China en ascenso afronta la supremacía de Occidente -en términos de poder duro y blando- en el orden mundial de posguerra.

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