Politiques à la noix au Mozambique

Pourquoi l'Afrique continue-t-elle ses pauvres performances économiques en dépit de deux décennies de réforme structurelle ? La plupart des gouvernements africains ont libéralisé leurs échanges, dérégulé leurs économies et amélioré, à tout point de vue, la qualité de leurs décisions politiques. Pourtant, leurs résultats restent anémiques.

Les économistes occidentaux et les organisations humanitaires se plaignent des réalisations inadaptées et du manque d'engagement des gouvernements africains. Mais les défauts des propositions de réformes jouent un rôle plus important. Les réformes conçues sans respect adéquat des réalités locales et des politiques intérieures ont souvent produit des conséquences inattendues ou des effets inverses.

Le cas des noix de cajou du Mozambique illustre clairement cela. Historiquement, le secteur de la noix de cajou constitue une part importante de l'économie du Mozambique, apportant un revenu à plusieurs millions d'individus. Dans les années 1960, le Mozambique produisait la moitié de la production mondiale. Le secteur connut un long déclin par la suite, alors qu'un ensemble de politiques adverses et de guerre civile entre 1982 et 1992 mirent fin à la plantation de nouveaux arbres.

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