Capitalismo con características chinas

Como acto final de su presidencia, que terminará durante la reunión del Partido Comunista que comienza el 7 de noviembre, Jiang Zemin quiere que los empresarios se unan a la dirigencia del partido. Marx y Mao probablemente se estén revolcando en sus tumbas. ¿Quiénes son esos empresarios a los que quiere cortejar el presidente Jiang y cómo operan? Kenichi Ohmae nos ofrece un esbozo.

Oficialmente, China sigue siendo comunista. Sin embargo, las empresas en China se enfrentan a una reglamentación mucho menor que en Taiwán, Corea, Japón, Alemania, Francia y Suecia. Incluso comparada con los EU, China es un paraíso capitalista, siempre y cuando se mantenga uno alejado del gobierno central. Por ejemplo, las tarifas (que fija el gobierno central, pero que se administran a nivel local) son bajas o inexistentes para las compañías que aprovechan los sistemas regionales chinos de zonas libres de impuestos y de beneficios fiscales.

Nada de esto era concebible ni siquiera en 1992, cuando el anuncio de Beijing de "un país, dos sistemas" (y la decisión de fijar la moneda continental, el Renminbi, al dólar de Hong Kong) abrió las puertas a la inversión extranjera. El dinero inundó los mercados de valores de Shenzhen y Shangai, y fluyó la inversión directa para construir fábricas y oficinas en las zonas libres de impuestos.

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