Dean Rohrer

A Ascensão do Hamas

CIDADE DE GAZA – O Hamas, movimento político militante que governou Gaza desde 2007, viu o seu estatuto regional significativamente reforçado depois do último conflito com Israel. Simultaneamente, o movimento depara-se com novas questões sobre a sua capacidade para tirar partido das oportunidades diplomáticas que obteve.

A resposta enérgica do Hamas à operação militar de Israel em Gaza, em Novembro, que envolveu o lançamento de rockets próximo de Telavive e de Jerusalém, demonstrou o seu empenho no valor que considera fundamental, a firmeza. Além disso, na sequência dos oito dias de conflitos, o líder do Hamas, Khaled Meshaal, que há muito se encontrava no exílio e que nunca antes se atrevera a mostrar-se abertamente em Israel, entrou em Gaza pelo Egipto. Percorrendo triunfantemente as ruas, reforçou a ideia - a nível interno e externo - de que o Hamas tinha vencido.

Além de Gaza, a ascensão do islamismo político nos países da Primavera Árabe, particularmente no Egipto e na Tunísia, facilitou uma vizinhança mais amigável relativamente ao Hamas. Fundamentalmente, as negociações no Cairo, das quais resultou o cessar-fogo com Israel implicaram o estabelecimento de contactos diplomáticos directos a alto nível entre o Egipto e o Hamas - facto que constitui uma alteração fundamental face à posição do antigo Presidente egípcio, Hosni Mubarak, que era manifestamente anti-Hamas.

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