Dean Rohrer

Hamas im Kommen

GAZA CITY – Hamas, die militante politische Bewegung, die Gaza seit 2007 regiert, ist mit einem gestärkten regionalen Status aus der letzten Kampfesrunde mit Israel hervorgegangen. Gleichzeitig steht die Bewegung vor neuen Fragen hinsichtlich ihrer Fähigkeit, die diplomatischen Chancen zu nutzen, die sie damit gewonnen hat.

Die entschiedene Reaktion der Hamas auf die militärischen Operationen Israels in Gaza im November, unter anderem durch Raketen auf Ziele nahe Tel Aviv und Jerusalem, hat bewiesen, dass sie sich ihrem Motto der Standhaftigkeit weiterhin verpflichtet fühlt. Nach der acht Tage währenden Auseinandersetzung wagte es zudem Khaled Meshal, ein lange im Exil lebender Anführer der Hamas, der sich bisher Israel nie offen zu erkennen gegeben hatte, von Ägypten aus nach Gaza einzureisen. Er fuhr im Triumph durch die Straßen und verstärkte – zu Hause und im Ausland – den Eindruck, dass die Hamas siegreich gewesen war.

Jenseits von Gaza hat der Aufstieg des politischen Islam in den Ländern des arabischen Frühlings, besonders in Ägypten und Tunesien, eine hamas-freundlichere Umgebung geschaffen. Besonders wichtig ist in diesem Zusammenhang die Tatsache, dass die Verhandlungen in Kairo, aus denen ein Waffenstillstand mit Israel hervorging, unter direktem Kontakt zwischen hochrangigen Diplomaten Ägyptens und der Hamas zustande kam – eine deutliche Abkehr von der Haltung des vorherigen ägyptischen Präsidenten Hosni Mubarak, der ausgesprochen gegen Hamas war.

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