Bush perd devant la Cour suprême et l'Amérique gagne

Deux décisions rendues cette semaine par la Cour suprême des Etats-Unis ont rejeté les pouvoirs de guerre considérables réclamés par le président Bush. Dans le cas de Yaser Hamdi, la Cour a abandonné la requête présentée par l'Administration qui souhaitait que les autorités militaires puissent garder indéfiniment à vue un citoyen américain accusé d'être un " combattant ennemi " sans même lui fournir une chance de contester le motif de sa détention devant un décisionnaire neutre. Et dans une affaire déférée par quatorze ressortissants nationaux, la Cour a rejeté l'argument du gouvernement, qui stipulait que comme la Base navale américaine de la Baie de Guantanamo était théoriquement sous la souveraineté cubaine, les tribunaux américains n'étaient pas habilités à considérer les requêtes juridiques déférées par des personnes qui n'avaient pas leur mot à dire sur le lieu de détention de ces prisonniers choisi par les militaires américains.

Bien qu'ils ne soient nulle part mentionnés dans les deux affaires, le traitement scandaleux des prisonniers américains à Abu Ghraib, et les révélations que des avocats gouvernementaux haut placés avaient préparé des memoranda confidentiels autorisant la torture de ces prisonniers, ont probablement influencé la décision des juges. L'Administration a essentiellement déclaré : " faites-nous confiance pour bien faire ". Manifestement, la Cour a pensé que cette confiance n'était pas méritée.

Une autre considération inexprimée peut avoir été à l'oeuvre dans l'affaire de la Baie de Guantanamo, qui a recueilli une attention internationale considérable. Au cours des dernières années, une majorité de juges de la Cour suprême ont exprimé clairement une vue multilatérale du droit américain qui offre un contraste prononcé avec l'unilatéralisme de l'Administration Bush.

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