Commencer par la base pour construire la Palestine

JERUSALEM – L’envoyé spécial du président Barack Obama au Moyen-Orient, l’ancien sénateur américain George Mitchell, l’a appris lors de sa visite dans la région : les efforts américains pour une paix entre la Palestine et Israël vont à l’encontre de trois obstacles majeurs. Aucun doute que ces derniers se présenteront lors des prochaines réunions entre Obama et ses homologues dans la région.

Le premier obstacle – problème qui se tient effectivement au cœur de l’actualité – c’est la guerre civile palestinienne. Le Hamas contrôle la bande de Gaza défiant ainsi l’autorité palestinienne d’Abou Mazen, chef du Fatah. L'échec des Palestiniens à construire un état-nation rend tous pourparlers de paix significatifs avec Israël – sans parler d’accord – pratiquement impossibles pour le moment. Si les Palestiniens sont incapables de trouver un minime consensus national, comment peuvent-ils faire la paix avec Israël ?

Le gouvernement israélien dirigé par le premier ministre Benyamin Nétanyahou n'est autre que le second obstacle. Le chef du Likoud sera nettement moins enclin – ou disposé – à faire de grands compromis pour évacuer les centaines de milliers d’Israéliens installés en Cisjordanie.

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