Para acabar con el consenso del monopolio neoclásico en economía

Durante los veinticinco últimos años, el llamado “consenso de Washington”, que comprende medidas encaminadas a ampliar el papel de los mercados y limitar el del Estado, ha predominado en la política de desarrollo económico. Como dijo en 2002 John Williamson, quien acuñó el término, esas medidas “son como los dulces que a nadie amargan”, razón por la cual lograron el consenso.

Ya no es así. Dani Rodrik, renombrado economista de la Universidad de Harvard, es el último que ha discutido los fundamentos intelectuales del “consenso de Washington” en un convincente nuevo libro titulado One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth (“Una sola economía y muchas recetas. Mundialización, instituciones y crecimiento económico”). La tesis de Rodrik es la de que, aunque existe una sola economía, hay muchas recetas para el éxito económico.

Rodrik ha prestado un servicio importante al afirmar tan claramente la existencia de “una sola economía”. Un crítico que hiciera la misma afirmación de que la economía sólo permite un planteamiento teórico sería desechado como paranoide, mientras que la reputación de Rodrik brinda la oportunidad para un debate que, de lo contrario, no sería posible.

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