Ben Laden et le dernier round en Afghanistan

ISLAMABAD – La mort d’Oussama Ben Laden au cours d’un assaut des forces spéciales américaines aura une influence certaine sur les relations entre le Pakistan et les Etats-Unis. L’exécution du leader d’Al Qaïda au cour même du Pakistan, dans une ville comportant une forte présence militaire, semble confirmer ce que de nombreuses personnes affirment depuis longtemps : ce n’est plus l’Afghanistan, mais le Pakistan, qui est devenu l’épicentre du terrorisme international.

Quelle influence aura la mort de Ben Laden sur les groupes terroristes actifs non seulement au Pakistan, mais également dans d’autres pays musulmans ? Quel impact aura-t-elle sur l’engagement des Etats-Unis en Afghanistan ? Quelques réponses provisoires peuvent aujourd’hui être données à ces questions.

Les Etats-Unis sont entrés en guerre en Afghanistan en octobre 2001 pour chasser le régime taliban qui offrait un sanctuaire et une base opérationnelle à Ben Laden et Al Qaïda. Les Etats-Unis sont présents dans le pays depuis bientôt dix ans et sont aujourd’hui confrontés à une insurrection de l’ethnie pachtoune. Les Pachtounes, qui représentent près de la moitié de la population afghane, estiment que la présence américaine les a spoliés d’un pouvoir qui leur revient, au profit de leurs rivaux, les Tadjiks et les Ouzbeks. Les insurgés pachtounes cherchent à obtenir le départ des troupes étrangères et à restaurer la prédominance pachtoune.

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