Ein Neuentwurf der städtischen Zukunft Chinas

PEKING – Etwa 100 Millionen Chinesen leben in extremer Armut, und etwa 275 Millionen geben weniger als zwei USD täglich aus. Die überwiegende Mehrheit der chinesischen Armen lebt im ländlichen Raum, und für die meisten liegt die Hoffnung auf einem besseren Leben in den Städten, wo es einfacher ist, besser bezahlte Arbeit zu finden. Tatsächlich haben sich in den letzten dreieinhalb Jahrzehnten bereits eine halbe Milliarde Chinesen auf den Weg dorthin gemacht, was den Anteil der Stadtbewohner an der Bevölkerung des Landes von unter 20% im Jahr 1980 auf heute 50% steigen ließ. Für 2030 wird erwartet, dass 70% aller Chinesen in Städten leben.

Das beeindruckende Wachstum und die schnelle wirtschaftliche Transformation Chinas wurde durch die Urbanisierung zweifellos unterstützt. Die Städte boten billiges Land und Arbeitsmöglichkeiten im Überfluss, und die Lokalregierungen bemühten sich um Investitionen und Arbeitsplätze.

Aber jetzt zeigen sich immer mehr Belastungen. Chinas Wachstumsmodell auf der Grundlage von Investitionen und Exporten geht die Luft aus. Die Städte ufern aus und leiden unter Verstopfung. Bauern fühlen sich für den Verlust ihres Landes nicht genug entschädigt – eine wichtige Quelle an Sicherheiten für Schulden der lokalen Regierungen (die inzwischen 30% des BIP betragen).

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