Nové představy o budoucnosti čínských měst

PEKING – Zhruba 100 milionů Číňanů žije v extrémní chudobě a zhruba 275 milionů jich neutratí více než dva dolary denně. Drtivá většina chudých Číňanů bydlí ve venkovských oblastech a pro většinu z nich se naděje na lepší život nachází ve městech, kde jsou snáze dostupná lépe placená pracovní místa. Za posledních pětatřicet let se do měst přesunulo závratných pět set milionů Číňanů, takže se podíl počtu obyvatel žijících ve městech zvýšil z necelých 20% v roce 1980 na dnešní polovinu. Očekává se, že do roku 2030 bude žít ve velkých městech 70% všech Číňanů.

Urbanizace Číny bezpochyby podpořila impozantní růst a rychlou hospodářskou proměnu země. Čínská města poskytují levné pozemky a dostatek pracovní síly, přičemž místní vlády dychtivě lákají investice a vytvářejí pracovní místa.

Začínají se však projevovat napětí. Čínskému růstovému modelu taženému investicemi a exportem dochází dech. Rozšiřování měst a jejich ucpávání se šíří, což vyvolává nepokoje mezi farmáři, kteří mají pocit, že dostávají nedostatečné kompenzace za ztrátu půdy – ta je přitom stěžejní formou zástavy za dluh místních vlád (jenž dnes činí 30% HDP).

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