Berlusconi toca el violín mientras Italia se desmorona

La Fiat está en crisis; los rectores de las universidades italianas renuncian en masa; los jueces acuden a la apertura del año judicial con la constitución en la mano como advertencia al gobierno: Italia está tan descompuesta y decrépita como lo estaba Inglaterra cuando Margaret Thatcher tomó las riendas hace 24 años. Cuando Silvio Berlusconi regresó al poder, prometió audaces reformas thatcherianas para arreglar las cosas. Sin embargo, según Ferdinando Targetti, sus reformas han sido escasas e insulsas, y en gran parte han estado destinadas a su propio beneficio.

Italia se encuentra en un declive económico. Su participación de las exportaciones en los mercados mundiales se está contrayendo. En la lista de "países más competitivos" que elabora el Foro Económico Mundial, Italia ha caido del 26° al 39° lugar en un año. El desempleo es mayor que el promedio de la UE (9% contra 7.6%). La inflación está casi al doble que en Francia y Alemania, a pesar de que los tres países utilizan el euro. La relación deuda nacional-PIB (110%) casi duplica el promedio europeo y sigue aumentando. La crisis de la Fiat puede representar la pérdida de la última gran empresa industrial competitiva a nivel internacional del país.

Como respuesta, el presidente de Italia ha pedido ayuda a la clase empresarial para apuntalar la competitividad del país. Los sindicatos deben regresar a la política que adoptaron durante la exitosa lucha contra la inflación en la década de los noventa. El Estado debe mejorar los servicios públicos, fortalecer el sistema educativo y dedicar mayores recursos a la investigación. El gobierno debe reformar la seguridad social y el sistema de pensiones.

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