Mark Carney Andrew Parsons/ZumaPress

I segreti delle banche centrali

LONDRA – Nel 1993, gli economisti Alberto Alesina e Larry Summers hanno pubblicato un articolo influente nel quale sostenevano che l'indipendenza della banca centrale tiene sotto controllo l'inflazione, senza conseguenze negative per la performance economica. Da allora, i Paesi di tutto il mondo hanno reso indipendenti le loro banche centrali. Nessuno ha invertito la rotta, e qualsiasi accenno al fatto che i governi potrebbero riaffermare il controllo politico sui tassi di interesse, come è avvenuto di recente in India, si è scontrato con l'allarme nei mercati finanziari e l’indignazione tra gli economisti.

In realtà, tuttavia, ci sono molti gradi di indipendenza, e non tutte le banche centrali cosiddette indipendenti funzionano allo stesso modo. Alcune autorità monetarie, come la Banca Centrale Europea, stabiliscono i loro target. Altre, come la Banca d'Inghilterra (BoE), hanno piena indipendenza - il controllo sui tassi di interesse a breve termine - ma devono soddisfare un obiettivo di inflazione fissato dal governo.

Ci sono differenze anche nel modo in cui le banche centrali sono organizzate per raggiungere i loro obiettivi. In Nuova Zelanda, il governatore della banca è l'unico decisore. Alla Federal Reserve, le decisioni sono prese dalla Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), i cui membri - sette governatori e cinque presidenti delle banche regionali della Fed – godono di vari gradi di indipendenza.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in;
  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now