Mark Carney Andrew Parsons/ZumaPress

I segreti delle banche centrali

LONDRA – Nel 1993, gli economisti Alberto Alesina e Larry Summers hanno pubblicato un articolo influente nel quale sostenevano che l'indipendenza della banca centrale tiene sotto controllo l'inflazione, senza conseguenze negative per la performance economica. Da allora, i Paesi di tutto il mondo hanno reso indipendenti le loro banche centrali. Nessuno ha invertito la rotta, e qualsiasi accenno al fatto che i governi potrebbero riaffermare il controllo politico sui tassi di interesse, come è avvenuto di recente in India, si è scontrato con l'allarme nei mercati finanziari e l’indignazione tra gli economisti.

In realtà, tuttavia, ci sono molti gradi di indipendenza, e non tutte le banche centrali cosiddette indipendenti funzionano allo stesso modo. Alcune autorità monetarie, come la Banca Centrale Europea, stabiliscono i loro target. Altre, come la Banca d'Inghilterra (BoE), hanno piena indipendenza - il controllo sui tassi di interesse a breve termine - ma devono soddisfare un obiettivo di inflazione fissato dal governo.

Ci sono differenze anche nel modo in cui le banche centrali sono organizzate per raggiungere i loro obiettivi. In Nuova Zelanda, il governatore della banca è l'unico decisore. Alla Federal Reserve, le decisioni sono prese dalla Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), i cui membri - sette governatori e cinque presidenti delle banche regionali della Fed – godono di vari gradi di indipendenza.

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