Cómo equilibrar los desequilibrios del mundo

En los buenos tiempos –y estos son buenos tiempos para la economía global-, rara vez se toman iniciativas concretas para enfrentar problemas difíciles. En este contexto, recibo con agrado el anuncio formulado este fin de semana por algunas de las principales economías donde reconocen su responsabilidad compartida para la resolución sistemática de los desequilibrios globales al mismo tiempo que se sustenta un crecimiento robusto.

Durante el año pasado, China, la zona del euro, Japón, Arabia Saudita y Estados Unidos discutieron estos planes entre sí y con el FMI. Detrás del rótulo algo vedado de “consulta multilateral”, se llevaron a cabo discusiones, las primeras de su tipo, que resultaron ser una herramienta prometedora para tratar una cuestión de importancia global.

Estas cinco economías son relevantes para los desequilibrios globales de diferente manera: o bien debido a sus actuales déficits o excedentes de cuenta corriente o porque representan una porción importante de la producción mundial. Todas coinciden en que resolver estos desequilibrios es del interés de todas y cada una de ellas. Pero también reconocen que es un desafío multilateral y una responsabilidad compartida para todas ellas.

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