La croissance chinoise profitera-telle ŕ l’Afrique australe ?

La Chine et l’Afrique australe ont récemment fait l’objet de l’attention internationale, mais pour des raisons trčs différentes. Puissance ŕ la modernisation rapide et en plein essor, la Chine, déjŕ membre permanent du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies, est aujourd’hui sur le point d’obtenir son adhésion au G8, si longtemps désirée, ainsi qu’un rôle puissant dans l’Organisation mondiale du commerce.

En revanche, l’Afrique australe est la proie de nombreux problčmes. Sa place dans l’économie mondiale est marginale, fragilement branchée sur les flux d’investissements mondiaux et dépendante des marchés de l’hémisphčre nord pour l’exportation de ses produits, les préférences tarifaires et les aides financičres. L’Afrique du Sud représente une exception remarquable, offrant les meilleures perspectives pour jouer un rôle moteur dans l’intégration économique régionale, malgré ses problčmes sociaux récurrents et, par comparaison avec l’Asie de l’Est, une croissance économique anémique.

Quelles sont les implications de l’émergence chinoise sur la scčne mondiale pour l’Afrique australe ? La Chine peut-elle aider ŕ tirer la région la plus pauvre du monde hors de son profond malaise politique et économique ?

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