Les Barbares sont-ils aux portes de l’UE ?

BRUXELLES – La zone euro traverse une crise fondamentale que les attaques contre les spéculateurs financiers ne résoudront en rien. Le conseil des ministres de l’Union Européene avait promis des centaines de milliards d’euros à ses membres financièrement en danger, alors même que l’économie européenne dans son ensemble n’est pas véritablement en crise. Bien au contraire, la plupart des études et des indicateurs économiques forts montrent une forte remontée à l’exception d’un seul pays véritablement en danger, la Grèce, qui ne représente que 3% du PIB de la région.

La crise pose néanmoins un défi presque existentiel à l’Union Européenne – et a nécessité de tels montants –  parce qu’elle a rapidement remis en question l’un des principes clé de la gouvernance européenne : la nature de l’Etat. Le cas de la Grèce a soulevé une question simple mais essentielle : un état membre peut-il être autorisé à faire défaut ?

D’un certain point de vue, on peut considérer que l’Etat est sacrosaint : l’UE doit intervenir et aider tout membre à la dérive à se remettre sur pied. Mais cette perspective suppose que tous les états membres adhèrent aux valeurs économiques intrinsèques de prudence budgétaire et de réforme des marchés de l’Union. Des problèmes pourraient apparaître uniquement du fait de chocs non anticipés, de difficultés politiques locales ou – le coupable idéal –  de l’irrationalité des marchés.

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