Violence et innovation

ABU DHABI – Dans le film britannique de 1940 intitulé Le Troisième Homme, le personnage Harry Lime a cette formule restée célèbre : « En Italie, pendant trente ans sous les Borgia, ils ont eu guerre, terreur, meurtres et massacres. Mais cette période a produit Michel-Ange, Léonard de Vinci et la Renaissance. » En Suisse, poursuit-il, « ils ont eu 500 ans d’amour fraternel, de démocratie et de paix, et qu’ont-ils produit ? Le coucou ! »

Bien que l’idée selon laquelle innovation et créativité ne seraient possibles que dans un contexte de conflit soit quelque peu extrême – la Suisse étant d’ailleurs l’un des leaders mondiaux en matière d’innovation – Lime soulève ici un argument important. Si la paix, l’ordre et la stabilité politique sont très largement reconnus comme les conditions préalables essentielles de l’invention, de l’entreprenariat et du développement économique, de très nombreuses exceptions à cette règle ont été constatées – surtout s’agissant de créativité et d’innovation.

Les États-Unis se positionnent régulièrement dans le top dix mondial en matière d’innovation, y compris selon l’Indice mondial d’innovation de l’INSEAD. En revanche, l’Indice mondial de paix place le pays de l’oncle Sam au 88e rang sur 153. De même, le Royaume-Uni et les Pays-Bas, respectivement cinquième et sixième selon l’Indice d’innovation, ne se classent que 28e et 29e selon l’Indice de paix. À l’inverse, le Bhoutan, qui fait partie des 20 nations les plus pacifiques au monde, n’apparaît même pas dans les classements établis par les indices d’innovation.

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