Wedding in Arab country

The Lonely Arab Crowd

PARIS – Melalui The Hubris of the Zero Point, filsuf asal Kolombia Santiago Castro-Gomez menggambarkan pernyataan yang dikemukakan oleh René Descartes pada tahun 1637 “I think, therefore I am” sebagai momen ketika warga kulit putih Eropa menetapkan kedudukan mereka di atas Tuhan selaku sumber utama pengetahuan dan kebenaran. Dengan titik balik ini, mereka mulai menganggap diri mereka sebagai pengamat dimana metode-metode, moral, dan etika ilmiahnya lebih superior dibandingkan masyarakat dari budaya lain.

Cultural “zero points” ini penting karena berfungsi sebagai garis pemisah – demarkasi jelas antara “sebelum” dan “sesudah” yang memiliki implikasi besar pada pengembangan kehidupan pribadi dan publik. Jadi layak untuk kita pertimbangkan dampak konsep Castro-Gomez terhadap dunia Arab. Memang, dapat dikatakan bahwa sebagian besar masalah di kawasan ini disebabkan oleh tidak adanya “zero points” setempat yang dapat melekat secara kuat pada budaya modern.

Dalam buku The Lonely Crowd, sosiolog asal Amerika David Riesman mengidentifikasi tiga jenis budaya umum: budaya yang diarahkan oleh tradisi (tradition-directed) yang berpedoman pada ritual-ritual, moral, dan nilai-nilai yang diwariskan; budaya yang diarahkan dari dalam (inner-directed) dimana masyarakat berperilaku sesuai dengan nilai-nilai yang dipupuk secara mandiri (self-nourished); dan budaya yang diarahkan oleh keadaan di luar (outer-directed) yang umumnya bereaksi pada norma-norma eksternal dan pengaruh sejawat. Kerangka milik Riesman ini memiliki pengaruh khusus di dunia Arab sekarang, ketika angka melek aksara meningkat dan kemajuan teknologi komunikasi secara cepat telah membangkitkan gejolak dari cultural narratives yang bersaing, sementara tiga jenis budaya yang ia utarakan saling beradu untuk menentukan masa depan negara.

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