Mike/Flickr

产业政策再思考

圣地亚哥—首先,世界银行成为不遗余力的女性和同性恋权利支持者。接着,国际货币基金组织支持使用资本管制,并表示关注收入不平等问题。这条意识形态现代化阵线的下一个是泛美开发银行:在即将发布的报告中,该银行呼吁拉丁美洲采取产业政策。

这是值得欢迎的发展趋势。平心而论,泛美开发银行虽然不像布雷顿森林体系诞生的两大机构那样顽固,但也属于传统国际金融官僚,没有产业政策置喙;它使用了政治正确的用词:“生产性发展政策”。但其中的信号是明确的:在拉丁美洲,公共政策应该在决定生产什么方面起到作用。一代人之前,这一信号会被视为异端。如今,这已是常识。

上周,来自泛美开发银行的经济学家带着他们的方案来到智利圣地亚哥开会。几十年来,智利一直是拉丁美洲经济管理的榜样,也是彰显所有拉丁美洲经济体所面临的问题的镜子。商品价格下跌、美元利率上升导致智利增长大幅减速。近15年来生产率几无增长,而其出口品组成亦与20世纪80年代别无二致。

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