印度的贱民的奥巴马时刻

新德里-奥巴马在美国取得了令人难以置信的胜利,这一事件引起了众多的国际影响,其中一个是,全世界正在反省这种突破是否可能在其它地方发生。一个属于有色人种的人是否可能在美国之外的白人占多数的国家里赢得权力?一个处在多数族群包围中的少数族群的人有可能超越他的出生身份而成为他或她的国家的领袖吗?

虽然各国的尤其是在欧洲的众多分析家们已经得出结论,认为这类事件在可预见的将来不可能发生,但印度却是个例外。少数民族的政客很久前就在印度的各种高级职位上掌握了权威,如果还算不上是掌握权力的话。事实上,印度上一次2004年的大选,赢家是一个意大利后裔的信仰罗马天主教的女人(索尼娅·甘地),她为一个锡克教徒(曼莫汉·辛格)向一个穆斯林教徒(阿卜杜勒·卡拉姆总统)宣誓就职总理铺平了道路,而该国的人口81 %是印度教徒。印度人说,这种情况不仅可能在这里发生,而且它已经发生了。

但这种自满还为时过早。在印度,最能和美国黑人的地位相类比的是贱民-即以前所谓的“最底层不可接触的贱民” ,他们是数千年来遭受屈辱的歧视和压迫的被剥夺种姓的阶层。和美国黑人一样,贱民约占人口的15 %,他们在低地位、低收入的工作岗位上所占的比例与他们在总人口中的比例不相符合;他们的教育水平低于上等种姓;他们每天仍然仅仅因为他们出生时的身份而受到歧视。只有当一个贱民可以统治印度的时候,这个国家才真正可以说实现了自己的“奥巴马的时刻 ” 。

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