Jim Goodwin/Flickr

Le fossé grandissant entre chiites et sunnites

BAGDAD – Les récentes élections législatives en Irak, les premières depuis le retrait des troupes américaines en 2011, ont été organisées dans un contexte de violences croissantes qui se rapproche rapidement du climat de terreur prévalant pendant l’insurrection de 2005-2007. Le nouveau gouvernement parviendra-t-il à rétablir l’ordre et à répondre aux nombreux défis posés à l’Irak ?

Les problèmes sont en effet colossaux. Les autorités doivent résoudre des questions constitutionnelles fondamentales (décider par exemple si l’Irak sera un État fédéral ou une confédération), reconstruire la société civile, réformer les institutions de l’État, relancer l’économie et éradiquer la corruption et le gaspillage dans le secteur pétrolier.

Mais parvenir à combler le fossé sectaire qui sépare les citoyens chiites et sunnites représente sans doute le défi le plus complexe de tous. Ce clivage est apparent dans d’autres pays arabes (en Syrie, au Liban, dans les pays du Golfe et au Yémen), et devient de plus en plus apparent dans l’ensemble du monde musulman (y compris au Pakistan, en Malaisie et en Indonésie). S’agit-il d’une aberration historique ou les deux plus grands courants de l’islam sont-ils voués à une hostilité réciproque perpétuelle ?

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