非洲的硬黑金

    拉各斯--在发达国家中,没有什么基础设施服务项目比电力更为普及、人们更为习以为常的了。对于工业化国家的消费者而言,不中断的电力供应是天经地义的。但是这在非洲并非如此。非洲的几个地方是全世界电力短缺最为严重的,只有百分之二十的人口有电力供应。

    国际货币基金组织最新发表的非洲萨哈拉以南地区经济展望指出,仅仅在2007年,该地区三分之二的国家存在极度能源危机,表现为经常持续断电。

    非洲并不乏水电站发电。但是,许多这些电站无法跟上快速人口增长以及随之而来的需求增加。而且,这些电站还要受到频繁的干旱影响。干旱会大幅度降低电力产量,使得很多电站成为基础设施点缀而已。尼日利亚和加纳等国人口越发膨胀,意味着要加大抽取水资源用于发电。农业活动迅速扩大,对整个非洲大陆的用水提出了更高的需求。

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