Afrikas Schuldendilemma

Der Erfolg, mit dem US-Präsident George W. Bush und sein Sonderbeauftragter, der ehemalige Außenminister James Baker, Iraks Schulden im Ausland streichen oder umschulden konnten, zeigt, was alles möglich ist, wenn eine Zielsetzung von politischem Willen gestärkt wird. Der Gegensatz zu Afrikas Schulden könnte krasser kaum sein. Erst vor drei Jahren machte Jubilee 2000 Schlagzeilen, als zivilgesellschaftliche Gruppen, Rockstars und einige Finanzminister, wie Großbritanniens Gordon Brown, sich für den Erlass afrikanischer Schulden einsetzten. Präsident Bushs Feldzug war größtenteils erfolgreich; Jubilee 2000 konnte den meisten Erfolg mit leeren Versprechungen verbuchen.

Natürlich sahen sich beide Kampagnen unterschiedlichen Problemen gegenüber und hatten eine unterschiedliche Basis der Unterstützung. Bakers Auftrag besaß den grenzenlosen Rückhalt eines Amerikas, dem die gewaltigen Kosten des Wiederaufbaus im Irak ins Haus standen; Jubilee 2000 hatte nur die Weltmeinung hinter sich. Lukrative Verträge für den Wiederaufbau verliehen den USA den nötigen Einfluss ihre Verbündeten zu zwingen sich zu fügen; Jubilee 2000 mangelte es an einer derart überzeugenden Waffe.

Baker wandte sich an die traditionellen Verbündeten Amerikas in Europa und im Nahen Osten, die in vielen Bereichen auf Amerikas Freundschaft angewiesen sind. Die Kampagne für den Erlass afrikanischer Schulden konzentrierte sich im Gegensatz dazu auf die erdrückende Schuldenlast, die afrikanische Länder dem IWF und der Weltbank schulden, die sich ihrerseits nur um Geld Sorgen machen müssen. Dennoch setzten die Straßenproteste der Jubilee-Kampagne eine gesunde Diskussion über die Kreditgewährungsverfahren des IWF/der Weltbank in Gang.

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