Dean Rohrer

Globální „New Deal“?

ATÉNY – Opožděné přiznání Mezinárodního měnového fondu, že značně podcenil škody, které na růstových tempech v Evropské unii napáchají úsporná opatření, jen zdůrazňuje zničující charakter „ortodoxních“ receptů na řešení příčin dluhové krize, která následovala po finančním krachu v letech 2008-2009.

Konvenční teorie naznačuje, že jediná země (nebo skupina zemí) konsolidující své finance může očekávat nižší úrokové sazby, slabší měnu a zlepšenou obchodní pozici. Protože však k tomu nemůže dojít ve všech velkých ekonomikách současně – úsporná opatření v jedné zemi (nebo skupině zemí) předpokládají nižší poptávku po výrobcích z jiných zemí –, vede nakonec taková politika až k protekcionistickým protiopatřením. Právě tato dynamika – proti níž John Maynard Keynes bojoval – výrazně zhoršila velkou hospodářskou krizi ve 30. letech.

K dnešním problémům se navíc přidává absence dostatečné soukromé poptávky – zejména spotřeby domácností – v rozvinutých ekonomikách, která by kompenzovala snížení poptávky v důsledku úsporných opatření. V posledních dvou desetiletích přitom táhla hospodářský růst v těchto zemích právě spotřeba, která dosáhla historicky nejvyššího podílu na HDP.

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