Chris Van Es

Eine Sicherheitsstrategie für das 21. Jahrhundert

MADRID: „Immer wieder in der Geschichte unserer Nation haben wir Amerikaner uns Augenblicken des Wandels gestellt und diesen geformt. Dies muss einer dieser Augenblicke sein.“ So beginnt die dem Kongress am 27. Mai vorgelegte Nationale Sicherheitsstrategie der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Wie bei den von der Regierung Obama in den 16 Monaten ihrer Amtszeit verfolgten politischen Grundsätzen – Dialog, internationales Engagement, Nichtverbreitung von Kernwaffen und Abrüstung – liegt die Stärke des Dokuments in der dort eingenommenen Position. Die Sicherheitsstrategie ist eine klare Abkehr von der vorherigen und gibt eine breitere Vorstellung davon, was nationale Sicherheit für den amerikanischen Präsidenten Barack Obama bedeutet.

Angesichts der großen Herausforderungen unserer Tage hat Obama klar Stellung bezogen – mit einer umfassenden Doktrin. Tatsächlich ist die Sicherheitsstrategie beinahe eine „nationale“ Strategie. Ihr Denken geht über das Paradigma einseitiger Dominanz der vorherigen Strategie hinaus und beinhaltet auch eine Verteidigung des Völkerrechts. Dies ist besonders beachtenswert, berücksichtigt man, dass die USA während der Präsidentschaft George W. Bushs keinen der großen Verträge zur Schaffung eines internationalen Strafgerichtshofes und eines permanenten Kriegsverbrechertribunals unterzeichnet haben.

Obamas Sicherheitsansatz ist zudem breiter ausgelegt und sieht die drei großen D’s – Defense, Diplomacy, Development (Verteidigung, Diplomatie und Entwicklung) – als untrennbare Teile eines Ganzen an. Die militärische Dimension der Auslandsinterventionen verliert ihre privilegierte Rolle und macht der Konfliktvermeidung sowie Friedens- und Stabilisierungsmissionen Platz.

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