Project Syndicate

The Year Ahead 2018

委内瑞拉的自由斗争

加拉加斯—今年席卷委内瑞拉的暴力潮让我的祖国的困境成为全球关注的焦点。数百万委内瑞拉人逃离了国家,更多人正在试图逃离饥饿、疾病和压迫。总统马杜罗不去寻求结束乱象,反而采取行动巩固他的独裁统治,这遭到了全世界的谴责。

但是,尽管委内瑞拉的危机目前已经成为国际社会的众矢之的,却很少有人能够抓住它为何会发生,或认识到滑向独裁的国家会给邻国造成什么影响。一个将曾经繁荣的国家变为贫困和犯罪的国度的政权不但是委内瑞拉的威胁,也是对整个地区数十年来的民主进步的威胁。

人们一直将马杜罗的独裁与劳尔·卡斯特罗对古巴的控制相提并论。但委内瑞拉并不属于成熟的极权统治,而是,借用德国法学理论家卡尔·施密特(Carl Schmitt)的话说,一个永远的“例外之国”(state of exception)。马杜罗利用自由选举的幻觉当烟幕弹,试图通过让所有重要机构,特别是全国选举委员会屈从于政府来剥夺委内瑞拉民主的实质。

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