La larga marcha a partir del Tercer Plenario

BEIJING – Aunque la sucesión de liderazgo en China tuvo lugar hace ya varios meses, apenas ahora se conoce la agenda política de la próxima década. Siguiendo la tradición política china, la nueva cúpula del país tuvo que esperar hasta el Tercer Plenario del 18.° Comité Central del Partido Comunista de China (que se celebra tres o cuatro trimestres después del Primer Plenario, en el que se define la sucesión) para revelar sus prioridades en política económica.

Los terceros plenarios (y tal vez solo ellos) suelen ser fuente de transformaciones radicales. De hecho, fue en el Tercer Plenario del 11.° Comité Central del PCC cuando Deng Xiaoping lanzó las reformas que abrieron la economía china y dieron curso a más de tres décadas de veloz crecimiento económico. Los terceros plenarios de los 14.° y 16.° comités centrales del PCC (celebrados en 1993 y 2003, respectivamente) también son dignos de mención. En ambas reuniones, los líderes del PCC presentaron planes integrales para la creación y el perfeccionamiento de la denominada “economía socialista de mercado” en China.

La resolución en 60 artículos aprobada en el último Tercer Plenario abarca seis áreas: la economía, el sistema político, el medio ambiente, la cultura, la sociedad y el desarrollo de capacidades del Partido. Esto representa un cambio importante respecto de las agendas de los terceros plenarios anteriores, centradas exclusivamente en la reforma económica.

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